Ketones are one of the most well known examples of organic compounds that contain a carbonyl group, which is conjugate of a carbon and an Oxygen atom joined by a pair of bonds, or a double bond to say it precisely. The presence of ketones is identified by certain reagents and tests, like Brady's tests, wherein they yield positive result to 2, 4 DNP (dinitrophenylhydrazine) to give the corresponding hydrazone. Moreover, they can also distinguished by using Fehling's solution or Tollens's reagent, in which case they give a negative result. The major reaction properties of ketones are due to activity of their carbonyl group towards nucleophilic addition.
1) At industrial levels, ketones are synthesized by oxidation of hydrocarbons
2) In case of small scale, application specific synthesis of ketones, they are produced by oxidation of secondary alcohols
3) Ketone derivatives play a very active role in photosynthesis as a a number of chemicals utilized/produced in the process are ketones
4) In medical science, carbohydrates and amino acids produce ketone bodies viz. Acetoacetate and hydroxybutyrate